Written by 5:47 pm Grammar For All

Direct and Indirect Speech ( Reported Speech)

This is one of the most important topics in grammar, here are the rules for the transformation of direct speech to indirect speech.. Lets study.

indirect speech , rules and practice examples
The sentence, which bears inverted commas, is called direct speech.
  • Direct Speech
  • I
  • We
  • Us
  • Me
  • Our
  • My
  • Your
  • You (First position)
  • You (Last Position)
  • This
  • These
  • Hence
  • Ago
  • Now
  • Tonight
  • Today
  • Tomorrow
  • Yesterday
  • Did
  • Could
  • Simple past
  • Come
  • Was dancing
  • Indirect Speech
  • He/she
  • They
  • Them
  • Him/her
  • Their
  • His/her
  • His/her
  • He/she
  • Him/her
  • That
  • Those
  • Thence
  • Before
  • Then
  • That night
  • That day
  • The next day
  • The day before
  • Had
  • Could have +pp
  • Past perfect
  • Go
  • Had been dancing

A]      For assertive sentence (Rule)

The sentence that makes a statement is called assertive or Declarative or Statement 

Here are the rules for this type

                                                             Said = said

                                                          Said to = told

                                                          Says = says

                                                          Connective = that

For ex.

*        He said, “I have told you about this.”
Ans:  He said that he had told him about that.

*        He said to him, “You have to listen me.”
Ans:  He told him that he had to listen him.

*        “I will not help you,” the teacher said to him.
Ans:  The teacher told him that he would not help him.

*        She said, “Honesty is the best policy.”
Ans:  She said that honesty is the best policy.

(Universal truth should be kept in present tense)

*        He said to me, “You are very punctual.”
Ans:  He told me that I was very punctual.

Examples for practice:

          1]      He said to his father, “I will work hard this year.”

          2]      She said to his friend, “We have to listen to our parents.”

          3]      The principal said, “I will not forgive you next year.”

          4]      The students said to the principal, “We are very sorry for this mistake.”

          5]      “You are very cunning,” she said to her friend.

           6]      The teacher said to his pupils, “This is the most important year for you.”

          7]      The pupils said to the teacher, “We will be extremely careful about this,”

          8]      I said to my sister, “You have to listen my advice.”

          9]      He said, “Man is mortal.”

          10]    He proved, “The earth is round.”

          11]    The servant says, “Tea is ready.”

          12]    He said to his mother, “I am ill today and so I will not go to school.”

          13]    He said, “My pen is lost.”

          14]    He said to him, “I know you and your aunt.”

          15]    I said to the boys, “You should not your duty.”

          16]    He said to me, “You are very innocent.”

          17]    The teacher said, “I am busy now.”

          18]    You said to me, “I don’t think I can oblige you again in this way”

          19]    The teacher said to the girl, “You have to improve your study,”

          20]    He said to me, “I can easily beat you in the long jump.”

          21]    “I have acted foolishly,” Ali said, “but I am sorry for it.”

          22]    He replied. “You are quite mistake, I am working very hard.”

          23]    He said to us, “I advise you all to do your work regularly.”

          24]    I said,” I shall finish my work as quickly as I can.”

          25]    He said, “It may rain tomorrow.”

B]      Interrogative sentence:

There are two types 

                                                A]      Wh-? Type

                                                B]      Yes/No answer?

For  Wh-? (Rule)

The questions that begins with wh word is called wh ? type 

                                                          Said = asked

                                                       Said to = asked

                                                Connective = the given wh-word

For ex :

          *        He said, “Why are you crying?”

          Ans:  He asked why he was crying.

          *        She said to me, “When will you return?”

          Ans:  She asked me when I would return.

          *        The teacher said, “What are you doing?”

          Ans:  The teacher asked what he was doing.

          *        “Why are you sad?” he said.

          Ans:  He asked why he was sad.

          *        He said to his friend, “Why did you insult my brother.”

          Ans:  He asked his friend why he had insulted his brother.

Examples for practice:-

          1]      He said, “Why are you so late?”

          2]      He said to him, “Why can’t you challenge me in wrestling?

          3]      She said to him, “Why can’t you help me?

          4]      He said to him, “Why are you dancing here?” 

          5]      “When did you call me?” He said.

          6]      She said to her, “Why are you singing loudly?”

          7]      She said to her, “Why don’t you tell me?”

          8]      She said to him, “Who are you and why have your come here?”

          9]      The teacher said to him, “What is your problem?”

          10]    She said to the teacher, “How can I solve this problem?”

          11]    They said, “Why have your cheated us?”

          12]    She said to her mother, “Where are you going now?”

          13]    The old man said to the boys, “Why are you teasing me?”

          14]    She said to her, “What is this?”

          15]    They said to her, “Where have you kept the bag?”            

          16]    She said to her, “Whom do you want?”

          17]    They said to the priest, “Why should we listen you?”

          18]    She said to her, “How long should we wait here?”

          19]    She said to her friend, “How are you?”

          20]    They said to him, “What can we do for you?”

YES/NO -? TYPE Rule:

The question that answers yes or no is called yes no question type 

 Said = asked

Said to = asked

Connective = if whether

For ex:

          *        He said, “May I come in?”

          Ans:  He asked if / whether he might come in.

          *        They said to him, “Is it fair?”

          Ans:  They asked him if it was fair

          *        “Do you like my gift?” he asked.

          Ans:  He asked if he liked his gift.

          *        They said to him, “Will you listen our speech?”

          Ans:  They asked him if he would listen their speech.

          *        He said to him, “Are you going to market?”

          Ans:  He asked him if he was going to market.

          *        He said to him, “Are you happy with me?”

          Ans:  He asked him if he was happy with him

Examples for practice:

          1]      They said to him, “Don’t you know about it?”

          2]      She said to her, “Have you completed you work?”

          3]      They said to him, “Do you think that we are wrong?”

          4]      The people said, “Can you take decision?”

          5]      The teacher said to them, “Haven’t I told you about this?”

          6]      He said to him, “Will you dance like me?”

          7]      They said to him, “Are you wise guy or something?”

          8]      She said to her friend, “Don’t you like our gift?”

          9]      They said to him, “Did you brush your hair this morning?”

          10]    My father said, “Have your finished your lesson, my boy?”

          11]    They said to him, “Will you lend us some money?”

          12]    The old man said to him, “May I help you in this case?”

          13]    The little girl, “Why are you angry with me?”

          14]    He said to him, “Do you hit this stroke?”

          15]    They said to him, “Can we you use your telephone?”

          16]    He said to him, “Don’t you know the rule?”

          17]    She said to him, “ Have you asked your parents?”

          18]    The doctor said angrily, “Don’t you know the bad effects of smoking?”

          19]    She said to him, “Do you know that I am in tense?”

          20]    He said, “ Have you seen my bag?”

C]      Imperative Sentence:

The sentence that expresses order , request , advice is called as imperative sentence

Said /said to = ordered / requested/ commanded/advised/warned/asked ( according to expression)

connective
                           = to

Don’t                 = not to

For ex:-

          1]      He said to him, “Give me your pencil”

          Ans:  He asked him to give him his pencil.

          2]      She said to him, “Please, help me.”

          Ans:  She requested him to help her.

          3]      The inspector said to him, “Follow me.”

          Ans:  The inspector ordered him to follow him.

          4]      The teacher said to him, “Study regularly.”

          Ans:  The teacher advised him to study regularly.

          5]      He said to his son, “Don’t waste your time.”

          Ans:  He advised his son not to waste his time.

Examples for practice:

          1]      He said to him, “Give me your pencil.”

          2]      The teacher said to him, “Study regularly.”

          3]      The people said to him, “Try to understand me.”

          4]      He said to his Father, “Give me some money.”

          5]      The old man said, “Please, help me to cross the road.”

          6]      The little said to me, “Try to help me.”

          7]      They said, “Tell us the truth.”

          8]      He said to him, “Please take me into the forest with you.”

          9]      He said to him, “Look after our parents.”

          10]    The inspector said to the constable, “Follow me.”

          11]    The little girl said to him, “Be brave.”

          12]    He said to him, “Please, wait here till I return.”

          13]    He said to his servant, “Do as you are told.”

          14]    He said to his son, “Don’t waste your precious time.”

          15]    He said to me, “Hurry up.”

          16]    The teacher said, “Pay attention to your lesson and do not talk.”

          17]    The officer said to him, “Leave my office at once.”

          18]    He said to the king, “Please forgive me.”

          19]    He said to his friend, “Please tell me what time it is.”

D]      Exclamatory sentence:

The sentence that expresses strong feelings is called exclamatory sentence

            Rule:                  
said = exclaimed
 Connective = that

N.B IN indirect narration the exclamatory sentence should be turned into assertive.

For ex.

          1]      He said, “How happy I am!”

          Ans:  He exclaimed that he was very happy.

          2]      She said, “How lazy you are!”

          Ans:  She exclaimed that he was very lazy

          3]      They said, “How dangerous it is!”

          Ans:  They exclaimed that it was very dangerous.

          4]      He said, “Wonderful!”

          Ans:  He exclaimed that it was very wonderful.

          5]      He said, “Alas! He is dead!”

          Ans:  He exclaimed sadly that he was dead.

Examples for practice:

          1]      They said, “How selfish you are!”

          2]      He said, “What a beautiful flower it is!”

          3]      She said, “How foolish I am!”

          4]      They said, “What luck!”

          5]      He said, “How nice it is!”

          6]      The poor man said, “How hungry I am!”

          7]      The people said, “What a great king he was!”

          8]      The teacher said, “How happy I am today.”

          9]      My father said, “How happy I am today.”

          10]    She said, “How kind you are!”

          11]    He said, “How kind you are!”

          12]    He said, “How innocent! You are!”

          13]    They said, “May god blesses you!”

          14]    He said, “Hurrah! He has passed.”

          15]    He said, “How tall I am!”

          16]    He said, “Raja, you are very lazy.”

          17]    They said, “Let’s complete the work”

          18]    He said, “Good bye friends.”

          19]    “What a terrible storm it is!” he said.

          20]    He said, “Thank god, I passed the exam.” 

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