Written by 11:13 pm Std.12 English

Std.12 | English | History Of Novel | Points

  • 18th Century : The periodical Essay and Novel
  • Novel : Relatively long narrative fiction which describes intimate human experiences in prose form.
  • Italian word ‘novella’ means new.
  • Second to sixth century – Greek Romances
  • Stories of ideal love and marvelous adventures 
  • Virgil’s Evologues
  • Malory’s ‘Morte De Arttiur’
  • Geoffrey Chauters ‘the Canterbury Tales’
  • Muraski Shikibu – Tale of Geoji – World’s first novel
  • Geaffrey Chources ‘The Centerbury Tales’
  • Miguel de Cervantes – Spanish Writer – Wrote ‘Dan Quirate’ – First European novel
  • 18th – Century – New literature – Spirit of realism, enthusiasm, passion and imagination
  • After 1740 – novel originated as a literary form in England
  • John Biniyan – ‘The Blarims Progress’
  • Aphra Behn – ‘Oronoku’

    18th Century novelists:
  • Daniel Datae – ‘Robinson Crusae, Mail Flanders’
  • Janathan Swift – ‘Gullivers Traverls’ – a famous satire
  • Samuel Richarson – ‘Pamela or Virtue Rewards’ ‘Clarriso’
  • Henry Fielding, Lawrence Sterace and Tabias Smllett
  • Stalwart Novelists : Charles Dickens
                                         Walter Scott
                                         Nathaniel Hawthorne
                                         Horace Walpole
                                         Thomas Hardy
                                          Willkie Collin’s
  • 20th Century :
  • Modern topics and innovative styles
  • Wrote on political, social, psychological and modern issues
  • Novelists : E.M.Forster            D.H.Lourence 
                         James Joyce          William Golding
                         Joseph conrad      Anthony Burgess
                         Henry James
                         George Orwell
                         Graham Green
  • Immigrant authors : Salman Rushdie (Indian)
                                          V.S.Naipaul (Tirnidad)
                                          Kazun Ishigura (Japan)
  • Women novelists
  • Frances Burney – ‘Evelina’ (novel of manners)
  • Ann Radcliffe – Gathic novels
  • Mary Shelley – ‘Frankenstein’ – 1813 – 1st novel based on science
  • Jane Austen – Popular
  • Bronte sisters (Emily and chrlatte) – ‘Wuthering Heights’ ‘Jane Eyre’
  • George Elrot – psychological novel
  • Virginia Walt – pioneer of stream of consciousness
  • Agatha Christie – Crime novels like ‘Miss Marple’ ‘Hercule Parrot’
  • Other – Harper lee
                   Margaret Atilaad
                   Tani Morrison
                    Alice walker
  • Indian Scenario
  • Bankimchandra Chattopadhdyaya – ‘Rajmahan’s ‘ which 1st novel in english written by an Indian – Serialized in ‘The Indian field’
  • Other
  • 1. Nationalistic virtues or social issues – Mulkaraj Annad, AK Narayan, Raja Rao
    2. Revolutionary – Anita Desai, Nayantara Sahagal, Arun Joshi, Manahar Malgaonkar
  • 3. Amitav Ghosh, Vikram Seth, Upamanyu Chatterjee ameliorated the Indian novel in English 
  • 4. Salman Rushdie, Arvind Adrga, Arundhati Roy, Kiran Desai, Kiran Nagarkar – recent years
  • Novella:
  • Italian word – novelle
  • It is a fiction which is shorter than a full length novel and longer than a short story
  • Famous novella’s:
  • 1. Joseph Cotirad – ‘The Heart of Darkness’
  • 2. Henry James – ‘The Turn of the Screw’
  • 3. Hermann Melville – ‘Billy Budd’
  • 4. Thomas Mann – ‘Death in Venice’
  • 5. Saul Bellow – ‘Seize the Day’
  • 6. John Steinbeck – ‘Pearl’
    •  
  • Elements of novel ‘ novella –
  • 1. Theme : Central idea, philosophical statement or a proof
  • 2. Plot – Course or story that makes up theme created by internal or external conflicts plot may be simple or complex
  • 3. Character – related to plot protagonist – hera
                              protagonist – hera 
                              antogonist – villain
  • 4. Setting – It is background in which story takes place
                         aspects of stetting – place, period, time, climate or
                         weather, lifestyle plot and character are 1 major 
                         elements 
  • Language / Style – language and the techniques used by the author for narration of the course of events
  • Types of novels:
  • 1. Realistic novels:
  • a. novel of manner
  • b. a piece of fiction that gives effect of realism
  • c. Novel of manners – ‘Evelina’ – Frances Burney
  • 2. Picaresque novel
  • a. Spanish word picara means rogue
  • b. Narrates the adventure of protagonist
  • 3. Historical novel:
  • a. Novel set in a period earlier than that of writing
  • 4. Epistalary novel:
  • a. latin word epistola means letter
  • b. Writer presents the narrative through a series of
          correspondence or other documents 
  • c. Commonly letters and diary entries
  • d. ‘Virtue Rewarded’ and ‘Clarrissa’ by Samuel Richardson
  • 5. Gathic novel:
  • a. inclide horror, mystery, terror, thriller, supernatural, doom, death or decay, haunted buildings
  • b. Gothic novels by Ann Radcliffe
  • 6. Autobigraphical novel:
  • a. based on life of author
  • 7. Allegorical novel:
  • a. a story that bears more than one level of means
  • b. Surface meaning is different from symbolic meaning
  • 8. Litopian / Dystapian novel :
  • a. imaginary community possessing ideal qualities 
  • b. Gulliver’s Travels
  • 9. Psychological novels:
  • a. Word of fiction that deals with the internal life of protagonist
  • b. novelists – George Elint
  • 10. Stream of consciousness novel:
  • a. coined by William James in 1890 in ‘Principles of Psychology’
  • b. Incidences of plot are in sequences of occurrence
  • c. Flow of thoughts
  • d. Virginia Woolf – Pioneer of stream of consciousness novel
  • 11. Bildungsroman novel:
  • a. German word Bildungsraman means growth
  • b. Focuses on protogonists mind
  • 20th century – pulp magazines – ground for science and detective novel
  • Science fiction -Frankestein – Mary Shelley – Considered the 1st novel
  • Genre fiction is crime and mystery fiction.
    Novelists – Agatha Christie – Miss Marple
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